Tetra Viuda Negra

Tetra Viuda Negra

Nombre común: “Monjita”, “Viuda negra”, “Tetra negro” (los dos últimos los comparte con otros carácidos, siendo útil únicamente el de “monjita”)

Primera importación en 1935.

Nombres en desuso (no válidos):
Tetragonopterus ternetzi y Moenkhausia ternetzi.

Clasificación:
• Orden: Characiformes.
• Familia: Characidae (Carácidos).

Biotopo:
En zonas cubiertas de vegetación y de aguas tranquilas, incluso lagos, cuencas y lagunas.

Distribución:
Sudamérica, (Bolivia, Perú, Brasil, Paraguay, Argentina) en la zona del Mato Grosso, río Guapore, río Matos, río Negro y río Paraguay,.

Forma:
Tetra de cuerpo muy elevado, ligeramente engrosado en la mitad de su longitud, y bastante comprimido lateralmente.

Se han desarrollado otras variedades, incluyendo una de aletas más largas que mantiene el colorido negro, resultado de la reproducción selectiva.

Coloración: El color de fondo es gris en la mitad anterior del cuerpo, surcado por bandas negras, dos a cada lado muy visibles, una detrás de los ojos y una más ancha bajo el incio de la aleta dorsal.
La parte posterior del cuerpo es de color negro más intenso. El inicio de las aletas dorsal y anal es de un negro más pronunciado que se difumina en el resto de la aleta.

Existe una variedad dorada, seleccionada genéticamente por medio de reproducción selectiva, así como variedades albinas (blancas de ojos rojos) y semi-albinas (blancas de ojos negros).

Estos peces especialmente las formas albinas y semi-albinas– a veces se presentan tintados artificialmente, bien sea con tonos rosas o azules llevando mas haya la variedad de esta especie.

Tamaño:
4 a 6 cms.

Diferencias sexuales:
Las hembras son más voluminosas y tienen el cuerpo más redondeado, algo que se observa fácilmente desde arriba. La aleta caudal del macho puede presentar puntos blancos. Los machos suelen ser mas pequeños, quedándose en los 4 a 5 cm, mientras las hembras alcanzan los 5 o 6 cm. En los machos, la aleta anal es más ancha en su parte anterior y la dorsal es más puntiaguda que en las hembras.

Temperatura:
Entre 23ºC y 26ºC.

Agua:
Acida y blanda o neutra, pH: 6.0 – 7.5 GH: 3ºd a 10ºd.

Acuario:
Acuario desde 40 litros, aunque en este punto muchos difieren. Lo recomendable es empezar desde 60 u 80 litros. No muy poblado, con abundante espacio para nadar. Luce mucho más si el fondo elegido como sustrato es de color oscuro y el acuario está bien plantado.

Alimentación:
Omnívoro, pero como todo tetra, esencialmente carnívoro: aceptará gusanos, pequeños crustáceos, insectos y comida desecada (escamas, hojuelas, liofilizado, etc.).

Comportamiento:
Es un pez activo pero pasivo, de asociación en grupo, por lo que debe vivir en un cardumen de 8 a 10 ejemplares. Cuando no se encuentra a gusto, suele quedarse estático en el agua, oculto entre la vegetación. Es común que se persigan entre ellos, aunque no debemos alarmarnos, ya que no se suelen producir daños.

Esperanza de vida: Con un promedio de 7 años de longevidad.

Reproducción:

El Gymnocorimbus ternetzi (Monjita) es un ovíparo de puesta libre sencillo de reproducir. Para reproducir las monjitas, se recomienda un acuario de unos 50 litros, ya que las puestas pueden ser muy numerosas. Hay que colocar numerosas plantas de follaje fino por los extremos (cabombas, riccia o ambulias resultan ideales) dejando mucho espacio libre en el centro. El fondo recubierto de una malla de plástico y una buena capa de musgo de java. Los cristales han de estar tapados pues los huevos y los alevines son sensibles a la luz. El agua un poco mas blanda que la de mantenimiento, la temperatura un poco mas elevada 26-27ºC y el ph ligeramente ácido.

Se elige una hembra bien gordita, de entre uno y dos años de edad y se la pone en el acuario sola durante un par de dias, por la tarde de ese mismo día se introduce el macho y la puesta suele tener lugar a la mañana siguiente, se estimulan si el acuario recibe los rayos del sol matinal. El macho danza alrededor de la hembra antes de que ésta ponga los huevos para que los fertilice. Realizan las puestas junto a la superficie del agua donde luego los machos fecundan los huevos, que al ser fecundados se tornarán de color crema.

La cantidad de huevos es muy variable según la edad de los reproductores, la calidad de su alimentación y factores genéticos. De 200 a 400 es muy normal, pero pueden llegar a ser mas de un millar, por esto es importante que el tanque de cría no sea muy pequeño, aguantan mal los traslados y pueden ser muchos alevines. Hay que quitar a los padres en cuanto hayan terminado o devorarán los huevos.

A 26ºC la eclosión tarda unas 18-26 horas. Los alevines tardan en absorber el saco vitelino, que es muy grande, 3 ó 4 dias. Hay que empezar a alimentarlos con infusorios y después con artemia. Los alevines son muy sensibles a la luz durante la primera semana, por lo que han de vivir en semioscuridad, para lo que iremos destapando los cristales poco a poco (ver ficha de Tetra Neón, P. innesi).

Si no se quiere retirar a los padres del tanque, por no disponer de otro, queda la opción de colocar canicas en el fondo o bien una red que impida el paso de los adultos al fondo, donde se comerían huevos y alevines.

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