Pez Vidrio y Vidrio Pintado

Vidrio-Pintado

Nombre Cientifico: Parambassis ranga (Hamilton, 1822)

Nombre común: “Chanda”, “Pez cristal de la India”, “Róbalo indio”, “Chanda fantasía”, “Pez fantasía” (los dos últimos se usan para las versiones inyectadas para su coloracion).

Primera importación: en 1905 por Paul Matte-Lankwitz.

Otros nombres en desuso: Pseudambassis ranga, Chanda Ranga, Ambassis ranga, Ambassis barlovi, Ambassis indica, Pseudambassis notatus, Ambassis notatus, Chanda lala, Pseudoambassis lala y Ambassis lala (los tres últimos por confusión con la especie relacionada Parambassis lala).

Clasificación:
• Orden: Perciformes.
• Familia: Ambassidae.

Biotopo:
Aguas dulces o algo salobres de lagunas y estuarios.

Distribución:
Asia: Pakistán, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailandia y Malasia. Hay informes no excesivamente confirmados de su presencia en Nepal.

Forma:
Cuerpo comprimido lateralmente y más alto que largo, lo que le confiere un aspecto romboidal. Boca en posición supera. Aleta dorsal con los primeros radios duros y los últimos radios blandos.

Coloración:
Ninguna, como su nombre común indica. Éste es un pez cuya transparencia nos permite ver sin problemas su esqueleto y sus órganos internos.

Los ejemplares jóvenes, en cambio son más opacos y tienen varias franjas negras verticales a lo largo del cuerpo que desaparecen al alcanzar la edad adulta.

A menudo se venden inyectados con colores fluorescentes, ya sean estos colores azul, amarillo, verde, morado entre otros.

Tamaño:
7-8 cm. En cautiverio raramente sobrepasa los 5 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:
Los machos presentan una línea azul en el borde de las aletas dorsal y anal y tienen la vejiga natatoria menos redondeada que las hembras.

Temperatura:

20° C – 28° C.

Agua:
pH 6.5-7.8 GH 9-20°d. Es conveniente mantenerlos en agua con bajas concentraciones de compuestos nitrogenados y lo más estable posible, ya que no toleran los cambios bruscos. Debe añadirse entre 2 y 6 g por litro de sal (para preparar agua de acuario, la común o “de cocina” no es apta).

Acuario:

El mínimo aconsejable es de 40 lts. con muchas plantas que puedan soportar la salinidad del agua como Vallisneria, Egeria densa (Elodea), Hygrophyla polysperma, Ceratopteris thalictroides (Helecho de Sumatra), varias rocas, troncos y raíces para que puedan refugiarse. Espacio para natación en el centro.
Sus compañeros deben ser especies pacíficas que soporten el agua salobre: Dermogenys pusillus (Mediopico luchador), Brachygobius xanthozona (pez avispa), Poecilia sphenops (molly), Poecilia velifera (molly velífera), así como otros pecílidos que estén adaptados a vivir en este tipo de aguas.
El agua evaporada debe ser repuesta con agua destilada, para evitar un aumento de la salinidad.

Alimentación:
Se debe alternar la comida en escamas con alimento vivo (artemia salina, dafnias, pequeños camarones, larvas de mosquito,…) para evitar trastornos digestivos y proporcionarles el aporte de nutrientes necesarios.

Comportamiento:

Pez de cardumen, por lo que debe ser mantenido en grupos de seis individuos como mínimo. Son sociables, tranquilos, tímidos y ocupan la zona media del acuario (ocasionalmente también la zona inferior).

Reproducción:
Ovíparo. Acuario de 20 lts para un macho y una hembra, temperatura entre 24ºC y 28ºC y luz tenue (podemos emplear plantas flotantes para reducir su intensidad). Las hembras depositan unos 100-150 huevos entre las hojas de las plantas y tras realizar la puesta los padres deben ser retirados. Es ese momento, es recomendable añadir 1 gr. de acriflavina por cada 100 lts de agua para la prevención de hongos. Los huevos eclosionan a las 24 horas y se debe alimentar a las crías con nauplios muy pequeños de artemia o infusorios sobre un difusor para que la corriente generada por éste, mantenga el alimento en la superficie y las crías no tengan dificultad para capturar las presas.

Observación:

Como hemos comentado en el apartado de “Coloración”, estos ejemplares originalmente son transparentes, pero normalmente suele encontrarse en los comercios con la zona dorsal (y en ocasiones también la ventral) pintada artificialmente con colores eléctricos (verde, azul, rojo, amarillo, …) con una técnica similar a la de los tatuajes. Vale destacar que la coloracion artificial  a lo largo de 6 meses aproximadamente desaparece, quedando el pez con su color natural devido al rechazo del organismo del pez.

A menudo se venden tintados bajo el nombre de “Chanda cristal” ejemplares tintados de Parambassis ranga, pero también –incluso con más frecuencia– de Parambassis wolffi (en su etapa juvenil, ya que este pez es de mayor tamaño) y de Parambassis lala. Se importan ya teñidos con los nombres comerciales de Red Glass Fish, Blue Glass Fish, Green Glass Fish, Yellow Glass Fish, Orange Glass Fish, Purple Glass Fish, Pink Glass Fish y Black Color Glass Fish. La diferencia, claro está, la marca el color del tinte que hayan metido en la jeringuilla.

vidrio pintado 2 vidrio pintado vidrio 1

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