Pez Perico, Perico Jelly Bean y Perico Rojo

Este pez carece de nombre científico al ser un híbrido creado por el hombre.

Nombre cientifico: Cichlasoma” sp. “Red Parrot”

Nombre común: Pez loro, Perico, Red Parrot, Blood Parrot, Purple Parrot. Este pez carece de nombre científico al ser un híbrido creado por el hombre.

Clasificación:

Reino: Animalia
Filo:
Chordata
Clase:
Actinopterygii
Subclase:
Neopterygii
Infraclase:
Teleostei
Superorden:
Acantopterigii
Orden:
Perciformes
Familia:
Cichlidæ
Género:
Cichlasoma
Especie:
Red Parrot

Expectativa de Vida:

Su esperanza de vida es de 10 a 15 años, siempre y cuando no se hayan tratado con tintes y hormonas, sino es posible que mueran prematuramente.

Biotipo:

Es un cíclido híbrido, con forma redondeada y con una deformidad en la cabeza y su aleta dorsal. Alcanza un tamaño máximo de 20 cm.

Hábitat Natural:

Es un pez híbrido, no se encuentra en la naturaleza.

Forma:
Se trata de un pez cuya singularidad reside en su deformidad, algo que paradójicamente, a algunos aficionados les resulta atractivo. Ejemplares de esta especie, tienen en mayor o menor medida el estómago desplazado y contraido por la vejiga natatoria, columna vertebral desviada, boca deformada con imposibiliad para cerrarla por completo, etc. En algunos ejemplares los opérculos no llegan a tapar las branquias, dejándolas expuestas a todo tipo de infecciones.

Algunos presentan ciertas anomalías en los ojos, en mayor o menor grado según los ejemplares. Presentan ojos de mayor tamaño al normal en Cichlasoma, que a menudo no son completamente redondos y el iris es desproporcionadamente grande en comparación con el resto del ojo, aunque es difícil decir en qué grado les afecta para su vida normal. Hay dos variedades mas de esta especie, un parrot sin aleta caudal y con forma de corazón, denominado “Love Heart” en el que la forma se consigue amputando con una cuchilla la aleta caudal cuando son muy jóvenes, para conseguir que las aletas anal y dorsal se cierren sobre el hueco dejado por esta.

Alcanza un tamaño máximo de 30 cm.

 

 

Pez territorial, pero raras veces agresivo.

Coloración:
La normal es rojo-naranja, pero a la selección genética deformante a veces se le suele añadir algo aún más deleznable: la coloración artificial a base de hormonas o tintes. Por esa razón es posible encontrar en los comercios “parrots” de colores chillones (verdes, rosas, amarillos, azules…) e incluso fluorescentes.

Los peces así coloreados tienen una peor calidad de vida y mueren de forma prematura. Además de las tristemente hormonadas, por selección se han desarrollado variedades con más colores, a menudo una o varias franjas sobre la coloración rojo-naranja.

Entre las variedades en catálogo de los exportadores se encuentran: Red and White (rojo y blanco), Black and Red (negro y rojo), Red and Black Streaked (rojo con barras negras), Silver Spots (puntos de aspecto plateado) y Black and Red No Tail (una variedad a la que, por selección se ha llegado a la desaparición de la aleta caudal, lo que los hace aún más torpes y malos nadadores que las variedades ”normales”). Algunos propietarios de Red Parrot se sorprenden de que sus peces cambien de color si llegan a alcanzar una edad madura.

No es sorprendente si tenemos en cuenta que algunos simplemente pierden el efecto de la hormonación y los tintes. Pero tampoco es sorprendente incluso en el caso de peces que no hayan recibido tal trato, si consideramos que los grandes Cichlasoma de los que se dice que provienen (como el Midas y el Red Devil) experimentan esas mutaciones de color en estado natural.

Tamaño:
Alcanza un tamaño máximo de 30 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:
Poco evidente. Los machos tienen las aletas más puntiagudas que las hembras. En las hembras suele ser más evidente el tubo ovopositor.

Temperatura:
Entre 23ºC y 26ºC.

pH
Entre 7 y 8.

Agua:
Lo ideal es un Ph entre 7 y 8 y una dureza entre 10 y 20.

Acuario Apropiado – Mantenimiento en Acuario:

Acuario mínimo de 120 litros. El acuario debe ser ancho, largo y alto, ya que es un animal que posee todos los niveles de nado, no debe tener adornos ni plantas débiles, ya que suele remover y escarbar el sustrato, que puede ser grava o arena, pero lo mas común es que realicen grandes excavaciones.

Alimentación:

Es omnívoro. Acepta cualquier tipo de alimento, desde comida seca (escamas, gránulos), pasando por todo tipo de alimento vivo. Hay que tener en cuenta que al no poder cerrar bien la boca, algunas presas o porciones se le pueden escapar o le pueden ser robadas por peces más rápidos que él.

Comportamiento:

Al ser un cíclido es algo territorial, pero raras veces agresivo. Es un pez muy curioso y sociable. Como otros cíclidos grandes, establece una relación interesante con la persona que lo alimenta. Son peces de grupo, es recomendable mantener de 5 o más especimenes.

Sociabilidad:

Es un pez sociable, que luchará por el dominio del acuario. Si hay peces pequeños, los perseguirá y acosará pero no los lastimará, al tener la boca deformada es inofensivo. Dada su dificultad para comer, saldrá perdiendo de cualquier enfrentamiento con cíclidos más rápidos. Debería mantenerse sólo con peces pacíficos.

 

Aceptará escamas, gránulos, papillas, insectos, larvas, hígado, corazón etc.


Reproducción:

Estos peces se emparejan a menudo en acuario como cualquier otro cíclido y algunas parejas desovan con mucha frecuencia, pero los huevos enmohecen enseguida ya que los machos son estériles. Hasta ese punto, en el que los huevos se echan a perder, el cortejo y la puesta son idénticos a los de cualquier Cichlasoma, con temblores oscilantes por parte de ambos ejemplares, limpieza de una superficie plana, puesta e intento de fecundación por parte del macho.

Hay cierta controversia en si es posible obtener alevines de una pareja de Red Parrots. Está demostrado que las hembras son fértiles, y de hecho se conocen hibridaciones entre hembras de esta variedad híbrida y otros Cichlasoma y su fertilidad es la base de que constantemente aparezcan en el mercado nuevos ejemplares, obtenidos del cruce con machos de otra especie (según Brent Parish de un macho de Amphilophus citrinellus). Pero hay quien asegura que los machos híbridos de Red Parrot “aunque estériles en un 99% de las ocasiones” pueden llegar a generar descendencia en casos extremos.

Según esta corriente de opinión presente en algunos foros dedicados en exclusiva a este pez en lengua inglesa, la esterilidad se debería más que a la propia hibridación al hecho de que los principales criadores y exportadores de éste pez localizados en Thailandia, tratan a los peces con hormonas como la methyl-testosterona que inhiben el normal funcionamiento de los órganos sexuales de éstos peces, y que muchas veces éstos obstáculos para la cría desaparecen con el paso del tiempo (una vez que las hormonas han dejado de ejercer su efecto), no obstante, pese a estas afirmaciones y rumores, ningún aficionado ha podido demostrar haber obtenido una puesta fértil de dos Red Parrot y en algunos casos se ha demostrado que existía una confusión con machos de otras especie, como los denominados “Jelly Bean Parrots” y “BubbleGum Parrots”.

Ha sido cruzado en cautividad.

Los conocidos como “Jelly Bean Parrots” y “BubbleGum Parrots” son híbridos más allá de los híbridos. Ambos son un cruce entre un macho convicto (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) y una hembra de Red Parrot, y la diferencia entre uno y otro es simplemente la gama cromática, ya que los primeros toman una coloración rosácea y los que reciben el nombre de “Bubblegum” son verdosos, pero sus colores son bastante suaves cuando no completamente blancos, por lo que prácticamente la totalidad de los híbridos de este tipo que se encuentran a la venta son artificialmente teñidos para darles colores chillones tipo “rosa chicle” o “verde menta”.

Para conseguir este teñido, los peces jóvenes son sumergidos primero en una solución que elimina la mucosa protectora de la dermis y después en otra que tiñe la propia dermis. Este proceso deja a los peces muy debilitados e impide su completo desarrollo, además de dejar mermado su sistema inmunológico. Aun así, la gran resistencia de estos peces hace que algunos lleguen a vivir varios años, aunque su esperanza de vida queda muy mermada respecto a los Amatitlania nigrofasciata sin manipular.

Los “Jelly Bean Parrots” y “BubbleGum Parrots” pueden ser fértiles, y muchas veces sus éxitos en la crianza se han confundido con la posibilidad de cría de los Red Parrot, de la que no se conoce ningún caso entre aficionados. ¿De dónde proceden entonces los Red Parrot que se encuentran a la venta en los comercios? Como hemos mencionado anteriormente, parece ser que, pese al secretismo que en Tailandia envuelve a la producción masiva de estos peces, los ejemplares en stock se obtienen del emparejamiento de machos de Amphilophus citrinellus con hembras de Red Parrot o bien del emparejamiento directo de machos A. citrinellus (Midas) con hembras de Paratheraps synspila.

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