Cuchillo Fantasma

Cuchillo-Fantasma
Nombre cientifico: Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)

Nombre común: Fantasma negro; Ituy; Ituy Caballo, Duende Negro, Morena Negra, viuda negra.

Antigua denominación (no válida): Sternarchus albifrons, Gymnotus albifrons.

Clasificación:
• Orden: Gymnotiformes.
• Familia: Apteronotidae.

Biotopo:
Esta especie es nativa de zonas con corrientes móviles rápidas en América del sur.

Distribución:
Este hermoso y extraño pez habita en la Cuenca del Amazonas, Río Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela y Guyana.

Forma:
Son peces planos lateralmente comprimidos, con el aspecto de una navaja, con una aleta anal que abarca todo el ancho del pez .

Diferencias del cuchillo marrón con el fantasma: el fantasma negro tiene un cuerpo más grueso, aletas más gruesas y una cola blanca.

Coloración:

Su color de fondo es negro, la cola esta dividida en tres partes; la primera es blanca, luego negra y termina en blanco.

Tamaño:
Hasta 50 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:
Los sexos se distinguen porque los machos son mayores y tienen la cola más larga a partir de la finalizacion de la aleta anal; asimismo, las hembras grávidas tienen un aspecto más engrosado.

Temperatura:

23ºC – 28ºC

Agua:
Ligeramente ácida a neutra; pH 6.5 – 7.0; GH de 5ºd -10ºd.

Acuario:
80 cm de largo al menos, cuando son jovenes y aún no muy grandes, luego de adultos necesitarán un tanque agradable de por lo menos un tamaño de 200-300 litros; grande con plantas, piedras y poca iluminación. Los acuarios deberán ser lo más oscuros posibles con numerosos escondites (raíces de árboles), porque los peces inicialmente son muy tímidos. Proveer fondo fino y numerosas plantas. Proporcione tubos de PVC como escondites.

Alimentación:
Hojuelas, papillas, etc. Son carnívoros y omnívoros; se alimentan de alimento vivo de todo tipo, pedazos de carne, lombrices picadas, y aceptando muy bien los alimentos secos tipo gránulos.

Comportamiento:
Pacífico, no obstante marca su territorio y puede depredar sobre peces pequeños (no asociar con tetras como neones y otros del mismo tamaño). Hábitos nocturnos.

Agresividad intraespecífica: su comportamiento es bastante agresivo y son mordedores entre ellos, por lo que debe de proveerse nucho espacio para más de un ejemplar.

Los animales tienen un débil órgano eléctrico mediante el cual ubican alimento con el pedúnculo caudal hacia adelante. El sensor emite una corriente eléctrica pequeña en el agua que no parece afectar a otros peces. La especie es muy sensible frente a agua fresca. Sin embargo, con la manutención adecuada frecuentemente se tornan sorprendentemente mansos. La especie puede ser asociada con grandes peces tranquilos. Pez de fondo.

Esperanza de vida:
20 años.

Reproducción:
Ovípara. Alcanza la madurez sexual a los tres años de edad. Según Kirschbaum (1995), Jacob ha conseguido la puesta de A. albifrons siguiendo el método Kisrschbaum. Parece ser que en Asia y Australia se esta criando a nivel comercial en estanques. El sistema es el siguiente: se mantienen varios individuos adultos (más de 5) en el tanque a una temperatura de 23ºC mientras se dismimuye el nivel de agua del acuario en días sucesivos. Cuando llega al nivel mínimo se va subiendo la temperatura hasta los 28ºC, al igual que el nivel del agua con agua desionizada. Así se puede estimular la puesta. Durante todo este periodo, hay que suministrar a los reproductores abundantes presas viva. Con un poco de fortuna se formará una pareja que se torna muy agresiva con los otros compañeros del tanque, llegando incluso a matarlos si el acuario no es lo suficientemente grande o no presenta los refugios necesarios. Los huevos tardan 72-96 horas en eclosionar. Los alevines deben ser alimentados con pequeños crustáceos.

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