Pacú

Pacu-Gigante

Nombre común:

“Tambaqui”, “Pacú”, “Pacú gigante”, “Cachama” (Reino Unido, Venezuela), “Cachama negra” (Colombia, Venezuela), “Bocó” (Brasil), “Gamitana” (Colombia, Perú), “Morocoto” (Venezuela), “Ruelo” (Brasil), “Red bellied pacu”, “Blackfin pacu” (Estados Unidos), “Schwazer Pacu” (Alemania).

Clasificación:

• Orden: Characiformes.
• Familia: Characidae (Carácidos).
• Subfamilia: Serrasalminae.

Biotopo:

Tropical de agua dulce. Zonas de aguas profundas y de corrientes con mucha vegetación.

Los juveniles viven en aguas negras: los adultos acuden en la época de crecidas a las áreas inundadas para alimentarse.

Distribución:
América del sur. Cuencas de los ríos Amazonas y Orinoco. Bolivia (zona de Trinidad); Brasil (ríos Amazonas, Solimoes, Curu, Manacapurú, Guaporé; lagos Grande, Janauari y Murumuru); Perú (proximidades de Iquitos, río Ucayali, Nanay, Amazonas; Venezuela (ríos Orinoco, Ventuari, Apure…).

Nativo en: Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú y Venezuela. Introducido en: Estados Unidos, Cuba, República Dominicana, Hawai, Honduras, Jamaica, Panamá, Filipinas y Taiwán.

Es un pez ampliamente distribuido en toda Sudamérica para piscicultura y consumo humano.

Forma:

Cuerpo casi ovalado y comprimido lateralmente. Abdomen con una quilla de escamas modificadas muy visible. La boca es pequeña, con dientes chatos en ambas mandíbulas y grandes molares para machacar la fruta y semillas. Ojos grandes. Aletas pectorales pequeñas. Tiene las escamas muy numerosas, lisas y pequeñas. Tiene unas cubiertas que tapan una especie de embudo que forma su nariz.

Coloración:
La coloración en los adultos es plateada con el vientre gris oscuro. Las aletas son negras. Cuando son jóvenes tienen una coloración rojiza como ventaja defensiva ante los depredadores.

Suelen dar gato por liebre en las tiendas, ya que el estado juvenil de este pez es muy similar a una piraña Serrasalmus nattereri a los ojos de inexpertos, incluyendo su vientre rojizo. Una de las claves para diferenciarlos es que Colossoma macropomun carece de mandíbula inferior superdesarrollada por su dieta no basada en carne.

Tamaño:
Pueden medir hasta 120 cm y pesar 30 kg. Es el carácido más grande del Amazonas.

Diferencias sexuales:
La aleta dorsal del macho es más acentuada y la anal tiene el borde dentado.

Temperatura:
Tropical. Entre 22-28ºC.

Agua:

Puede vivir en aguas extremadamente blandas. pH 5.0-7.8. Dureza: hasta un máximo de 15ºdGH, preferiblemente menor, ya que en las aguas negras en que nace la dureza es inferior a 1ºdGH.

Acuario:
Dado el tamaño que puede llegar a alcanzar necesitará un tanque de más de 100 galones. Para peces jóvenes (hasta 6 cm.), 120 cm. ó más de 170 l. Para peces hasta 30 cm., 200 cm. ó 600 l. Para peces de más de 50 cm., 250 cm. y 800 l.

Alimentación:
Omnívoro, aunque muestra preferencia por los alimentos vegetales. Zooplancton, insectos, caracoles, crustáceos, peces, trozos de carne, plantas, frutas, granos, lechuga, guisantes, espinaca y harina de avena. Tiene un gran sentido del olfato que le ayuda a encontrar el alimento, llegan incluso a oler la fruta antes de que caiga al agua.
Comportamiento:
Pez de cardumen, gregario y bastante pacífico para su tamaño, aunque no apto para acuario comunitario. Los adultos más grandes pueden ser solitarios. Entre ellos pueden propinarse mordiscos que les dejan marcadas las aletas. Es muy resistente a las enfermedades. Nada en la zona media-fondo del acuario.

Presenta una esperanza de vida de 25 a 30 años.

Reproducción:
No se ha logrado en acuarios probablemente por su tamaño, pero sí en psicifactorías. En libertad migra contracorriente para la freza para llegar a las zonas llanas inundadas, donde se produce el desove entre los meses de diciembre y abril.

Los huevos son de color verde, de entre 0,9 y 1 mm de diámetro. El desarrollo de los huevos es muy rápido. Según datos de FishBase se aprecian dos blastómeros a los 23 minutos de la fecundación, cuatro a los 30 minutos, ocho a los 42 minutos y se inicia la fase de morula 1 hora y 22 minutos despúes. Tras 4 horas de incubación se inicia la fase pre-embrionaria, fase embrionaria a las 7 horas y a las 12 horas el embrión ya se mueve dentro del huevo. La eclosión se produce a las 24 horas a una temperatura de 28ºC.

Con una esperanza de vida de hasta 30 años, puedes tener una mascota para largo, pero debes de estar conciente que los Pacu necesitan mucho espacio y no es un pez para novatos

Red_pacu

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