Sapo de uñas enano, Ranita africana enana de uñas.

ranas africanas

Nombre cientifico: Hymenochirus boettgeri

Nombre común:
Sapo de uñas enano, ranita africana enana de uñas, dwarf african clawed frog.

Familia: Pipidae.

Biótopo:
Son ranas estrictamente acuáticas que habitan los remansos de aguas estancadas donde la vegetación acuática es abundante entre la cual esperan al acecho sus presas.

Distribución:

Oriunda de África Central y de ciertas regiones del Oeste.

*Status: Actualmente los ejemplares comercializados proceden de la cría en cautividad y no está afectada por la Legislación de especies amenazadas o de especial protección.

Forma:
Pequeño anuro de cuerpo estilizado, piel no demasiado rugosa y hocico puntiagudo. Cabeza relativamente pequeña provista de un par de ojos orientados ligeramente hacia arriba así como de un par de orificios cerca del hocico. Presentan 4 dedos en las extremidades anteriores y 5 en las posteriores provistas todas de una membrana interdigital.
La familia Pipidae conforma el grupo de los aglosos así pues las Hymenochirus y parientes cercanos no presentan lengua.

Como dato curioso se han contabilizado más de mil huevos en una puesta de este magnífico anuro lo cual no deja de sorprender dado su pequeño tamaño.

Coloración:
La coloración es variable en el dorso aunque predomina el color pardo o pardo claro manchado de negro. El vientre es de color claro.

Tamaño:

No suelen sobrepasar los 3,5-4 cm de longitud (se mide desde la boca hasta la cloaca).

Diferencias sexuales:
Resultan muy difíciles de apreciar dado que son prácticamente inexistentes. Si bien los machos son capaces de emitir sonidos para atraer a las hembras como hacen sus parientes terrestres aunque son apenas perceptibles por nosotros. Algunos autores creen que los producen gracias a unos pequeños huesos que tienen en el cuello.

Temperatura:
No es recomendable que la temperatura descienda por debajo de 18ºC y no toleran bien la hibernación. La temperatura óptima la encontramos entorno a los 25ºC.

Agua:
La calidad del agua no es un problema grave para las Hymenochirus si bien debemos evitar valores extremos. Es fácil conseguir un agua de buena calidad mediante un filtro mecánico simple que extraiga del agua detritus y la depure biológicamente. Respecto a la acidez (pH), un pH de tipo neutro es el más adecuado.

Temperatura: No es recomendable que la temperatura descienda por debajo de 18ºC y no toleran bien la hibernación. La temperatura óptima la encontramos entorno a los 25ºC.

Acuario:
Rana estrictamente acuática que deberá ser mantenida en un acuario montado de semejante manera a como lo haríamos para los peces tropicales. Es importante que haya abundante vegetación (Cabomba, Limnophila, Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, Vesicularia dubyana, etc…) así como que se garantice una buena ventilación en el aire comprendido entre la tapa del acuario y el agua de modo que no se genere aire viciado que junto con la alta temperatura puedan provocar enfermedades en nuestros anfibios (una simple regilla nos solucionará el problema).
No necesitan una especial iluminación con las típicas pantallas de acuario tenemos más que suficiente.

Alimentación:

Anuro estrictamente carnívoro que se nutre básicamente de pequeños invertebrados tales como: larvas de insectos, pequeñas lombrices, crustáceos pequeños, etc. En cautividad deberíamos ser capaces de ofrecerle una gran variedad de alimentos: comida congelada para peces, trocitos de pescado, gamba, mejillón, etc.
Evitemos el uso de carne dado que su utilización abusiva puede provocar problemas digestivos en nuestros animales.

Comportamiento:
Depredador que caza al acecho todo aquello que se mueva delante suyo. Es una animal tranquilo y lento en el momento de comer.

Reproducción:

Es relativamente fácil reproducirlas en cautividad basta con ofrecerles un acuario con abundante vegetación y descender levemente la temperatura para luego subirla paulatinamente lo cual estimula el desove el cual tiene lugar mientras la pareja de ranas nada boca arriba bajo la superficie del agua. Los renacuajos pueden ser alimentados con una mezcla de algas y un comprimido de infusyl durante los primeros estadios para después poder capturar estadios juveniles de pequeños invertebrados como la Daphnia (pulga de agua).
Como dato curioso se han contabilizado más de mil huevos en una puesta de este magnífico anuro lo cual no deja de sorprender dado su pequeño tamaño.

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