Gurami Perla


Nombre Cientifico:
Trichogaster leerii (Bleeker, 1852)

Nombre Común:
“Gurami perla”. En inglés “Pearl gourami”, “Diamond gourami” o “Mosaic gourami”. En alemán “Mosaikfadenfisch”.

• Sinónimos y nombres en desuso (no válidos): Trichopus leerii, Trichopodus leeri, Trichogaster leerri, Trichogaster leeri.

Familia:
• Orden:

Perciformes.
• Familia: Osphronemidae. (Guramies).
• Subfamilia: Luciocephalinae (hasta 2005 estuvo encuadrado en la subfamilia Trichogastinae).

Biotopo:
Arrozales y charcas de Asia oriental.

Distribución:
Tailandia, Malasia e Indonesia (Borneo). Probablemente también en Vietnam.

Se citan introducciones de esta especie en Colombia, Filipinas, Florida y Hawaii, habiéndose establecido al menos en los dos prkmeros lugares citados (Fuente, FishBase).

Forma:
Cuerpo compactado por los flancos laterales en forma redondeada; con boca en disposición súpera. Posee un par de barbillones táctiles en la base del vientre.

Coloración:
Es de color amarillo-marrón en el dorso y rojo en el vientre posee una línea negra horizontal que recorre todo el cuerpo por la mitad atravesando el ojo. Se caracteriza por tener un moteado blanco por todo el cuerpo con forma circular que le dan su nombre.

Tamaño:
Hasta 12 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:
Las aletas dorsal y anal de los machos tienen una forma deshilachada en la parte final y rebasan el pedúnculo caudal, en las hembras estas aletas tienen terminación redondeada y son más cortas, además de que estas últimas son menos coloridas que los machos.

Gurami Perla Hembra

Temperatura:
Entre 25°C y 29°C, siendo la óptima 27ºC. Soportan mal las temperaturas fuera de este rango.

Agua:
pH de 6.5 a 7.5, dureza de 5°d a 15°d. Blanda a semidura.

Acuario:
Se pueden mantener en acuarios de 60 litros en adelante, aprecian un acuario bien plantado y con poca corriente en la superficie.

Alimentación:
Acepta todo tipo de alimento, incluidos los comerciales, aunque para que el pez pueda desarrollar todo su esplendor, es muy aconsejable la utilización de alimentos vivos, como artemia, grindall, larvas de mosquito, etc. En caso de no poder disponer de alimento vivo, siempre es recomendable dar una alimentación variada, variando las marcas y teniendo en cuenta que es un animal carnívoro.

Comportamiento:
Es el más pacifico de los Trichogaster y algunas veces se le clasifica como tímido, aunque si se le mantiene en acuarios pequeños es fácil ver como defiende su territorio ante posibles rivales.

En acuarios de más de 100 litros, es fácil verle convivir incluso con otras especies de laberíntidos, como por ejemplo bettas e incluso colisas, eso sí, siempre que el acuario este bien plantado y disponga de refugios y escondites, por si se produce algún enfrentamiento.

Esperanza de vida:
10 años.

Reproducción:
Característica de los Anabantoideos (no es un Anabántido), el macho construye un nido de burbujas y cuida de los alevines hasta que pueden nadar libremente.

Se debe colocar al macho reproductor en un acuario de 50 litros con buena vegetación y una planta que llegue hasta la superficie además debe tener plantas y otros objetos flotantes de los que el macho se ayude para construir el nido. El acuario debe mantenerse a 28°C y las características del agua deben ser optimas.

Cuando el acuario este listo se puede proceder a colocar en él al macho que previamente se habrá mantenido separado de la hembra y se les habrá administrado alimento de calidad (preferentemente vivo) por una semana como mínimo. Sólo así se logrará que la hembra produzca la freza. Cinco horas después de haber introducido al macho (más o menos) comenzará la construcción del nido, al día siguiente se puede poner a la hembra en el acuario, durante los días siguientes se les debe observar para que al momento en que se apareen se pueda retirar con cuidado a la hembra.

Si todo ha resultado bien los alevines eclosionarán a las 24 horas. Se les deberá alimentar con infusorios y rotíferos y posteriormente con daphnia y artemia salina recién eclosionada. A los 7 días de nacidos aceptan hojuelas pulverizadas el macho deberá retirarse al cuarto día después de la eclosión o antes en caso de que sea un mal padre y coma a sus bebes.

Se podrá observar una gran diferencia en el tamaño de los alevines; este efecto se reduce a trasladándolos a partir de la cuarta semana a un tanque donde la población sea de 0,7 litros por alevín.

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