Tiburon Arcoiris, Labeo frenatus

Tiburon Arcoiris

Nombre Cientifico: Epalzeorhynchos frenatum (Fowler, 1934)

Nombre común: Labeo frenatus, tiburón de aletas rojas, Tiburon Arcoiris, Labeo verde. Labeo albino (variedad albina).

Sinónimos:
Epalzeorhyncus frenatus, Epalzeorhynchos frenatus, Labeo erythrurus.

Clasificación:

• Orden: Cypriniformes.
• Familia: Cyprinidae (Ciprinidos).
• Subfamilia: Garrinae.

Biotopo:
Biotopo fluvial, aguas no estancadas.

Distribución:
Arroyos del Norte de Tailandia.

Forma:
Alargado y poco comprimido lateralmente. Aleta que recuerda a la de un tiburón, de ahí su nombre común. Aleta caudal bifurcada en forma de horquilla. Muy similar al labeo bicolor pero no tan elegante a causa de la escasa intensidad de sus colores y con el hocico un poco más acentuado. Tiene dos pares de barbillones a los lados de su boca con los que busca el alimento.

Coloración:
Cuerpo gris fuerte, marrón grisáceo o azulado, dependiendo del ánimo del pez y del entorno donde está. El vientre es blanquecino y la cola y aletas de naranja oscuro a rojo intenso. Tiene una línea negra poco definida, a cada lado, desde la boca pasando por los ojos que son del mismo negro, hasta unos milímetros pasadas las branquias. Los colores son especialmente brillantes en los ejemplares sanos.

En la variedad albina el cuerpo es rosado con el vientre blanco y las aletas rojas.

Su color es gris y azul, si el color decae a un gris blanquecino, es que no presenta buena salud o está claramente estresado, quizá por unos parámetros del agua erróneos.

Tamaño:
En estado salvaje hasta 30 cm. En cautividad 12 cm aproximadamente.

Diferencias sexuales:
No es fácil diferenciar a ambos sexos siendo jóvenes. En los adultos la diferenciación de sexo es evidente, los machos son más esbeltos, de colores más brillantes y con la parte posterior de la aleta anal enmarcada en negro; la hembra es más corpulenta y carece de este marco negro.

Temperatura:
De 22ºC a 28ºC.

Agua:
No son peces muy exigentes en cuanto a la composición del agua pero les agrada el agua entre ligeramente ácida, neutra y semidura. pH 6.2-7.5. GH 8-12ºd.

Acuario:
Acuario alargado (120 cm ó 200 litros como óptimo), plagado de refugios, escondites y cuevas, en forma de abundante vegetación (que no deteriorarán puesto que no están habituados a las excavaciones), rocas y madera petrificada. Suelo blando. Iluminación normal (0,3-0,5 W), aunque les agrada enormemente la luz difusa. Se ha de procurar proporcionar en alguna parte del acuario ciertas corrientes persistentes y manteniendo, un sólo ejemplar de esta especie.

Por su tamaño y su forma de ser, no debería estar en un acuario de menos de 150 litros. (Cuando se introduce en acuarios pequeños se vuelve más asustadizo, tímido y muy agresivo con los otros peces).

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Reproducción: Ovíparo. Su reproducción ha sido exitosa, pero se trata de grandes excepciones. La temperatura ideal para la reproducción es de 26ºC. Debe ser muy parecida o similar a la del Labeo bicolor.

Alimentación:
Omnívoro, pero dando prioridad a los vegetales (algas, hojas de lechuga hervidas, espinacas), alimentos secos, congelados o liofilizados y píldoras alimenticias para habitantes del fondo. Acepta comida en escamas regularmente en las zonas media e inferior del acuario. Se pasa el día ramoneando las algas de todo el decorado, plantas, grava, troncos etc, aunque no es un auténtico “come-algas”.

Esperanza de vida:Está entre los 6 y 10 años e incluso superar esta edad si se mantiene en buenas condiciones.

Comportamiento:
Pendenciero, territorial y puede ser agresivo. Forma un territorio prohibido para los restantes peces, permanece oculto en su escondite y sale disparado sobre los intrusos si se acercan demasiado, pero casi nunca los lastiman, tan sólo les advierten.

Los alevines crecen en compañía sin problemas pero, una vez alcanzada la madurez, son muy intolerantes o incluso agresivos entre sí y con los restantes habitantes del acuario. El mejor sistema es mantenerlos en solitario. En acuarios de grandes dimensiones se pueden mantener dos o tres que se molestarán entre ellos y no lo harán al resto.

No mezclar con especies tímidas ni pequeñas, que sufrirán persecuciones. Gran nadador de la zona medio-profunda del acuario. Muy activo, pasará el día pastando algas del fondo y comida que pueda haber caído.

Cabe destacar que se vuelve agresivo con otros labeos y botias, en general con las Botia modesta, pero también con otros cobítidos, aunque la locha sea de mayor tamaño, el Labeo frenatus la molestará, si se la encuentra en su camino y la perseguirá hasta que él se aburra o la botia se esconda.

Reproducción:

Ovíparo. Su reproducción ha sido exitosa, pero se trata de grandes excepciones. La temperatura ideal para la reproducción es de 26ºC. Debe ser muy parecida o similar a la del Labeo bicolor.

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