Pez Arcoiris Boeseman ó Melanotaenia

El pez arco iris tiene un comportamiento similar a la de los barbos por lo cual tienes que mezclarlo con peces de nado rápido….

Nombre Cientifico: Melanotaenia  boesemani – Allen & Cross, 1980

Nombre común: Pez arco iris de Boeseman. El nombre que le dan los nativos de Irian Jaya es ‘Sekiak’ o ‘Ikan rascado’.

El nombre del género Melanoteania (Gill, 1862) hace referencia a la línea horizontal oscura (del latín “melano” = negro; y “taenia” = banda), que adorna los flancos de todas las especies, aunque puede ser más o menos visible según la especie concreta y el humor del ejemplar en cuestión.

 

Clasificación:

• Orden: Atheriniformes.

• Familia: Melanotaeniidae.(peces arco-iris)

Colores vistosos y llamativos son las principales características de este amiguito…

Primera importación: La especie fue descrita en 1980 por Gerald R. Allen y Norbert J. Cross a partir de unos ejemplares capturados por una expedición holandesa en Irian Jaya en 1954-55, dirigida por el doctor Marinus Boeseman. Al partir de ejemplares conservados en formol por largo tiempo, no tenían ni idea de la coloración original de la especie, por lo que quedaron impresionados cuando el propio Allen tuvo oportunidad de verlos en vivo en su hábitat natural en noviembre de 1982. Heiko Bleher, un reputado recolector e importador que acompañaba a Allen, llevó algunos de los ejemplares capturados a Europa donde fueron reproducidos e inmediatamente iniciaron la fiebre por estos coloridos peces y por sus homónimos australianos.

Biotopo:

Lagos de la región de Ajamaru situados en la cabecera del río del mismo nombre, en el centro de la península Vogelkop. Se encuentran principalmente en el lago Ajamaru y en algunos ríos tributarios que lo rodean, pero también es posible verlos en los lagos Hain y Aitinjo.

En la naturaleza es una especie amenazada de extinción y todos los ejemplares que se encuentran en el comercio proceden de la cría en cautividad.

Distribución:

Sudeste asiático. Irian Jaya (Indonesia), Lagos Ajamaru, Hain y Aitinjo.

Forma:

Cuerpo ovoide y comprimido lateralmente, que está cubierto de grandes escamas. La cabeza, muy pequeña en comparación con el cuerpo, tiene una boca terminal súpera. Las aletas impares, agrupadas hacia atrás, están poco desarrolladas pero bien perfiladas, lo que indica que son excelentes y rápidos nadadores. Carecen de aleta adiposa, y la aleta dorsal que atraviesa la parte posterior de la espalda es doble (vestigio de un antiguo origen marino). La aleta anal se extiende desde las pélvicas hasta el pedúnculo caudal (punto de unión del cuerpo con la aleta caudal).

Diagnosis: espinas en la aleta dorsal: 5-7; radios blandos en la aleta dorsal: 10-14; espinas en la aleta anal: 1-1;radios blandos en la aleta anal: 17-23.

Coloración:

Se trata de uno de los más bellos y llamativos arco-iris, cin un patrón de color inusual en el género. La cabeza y la parte delantera del cuerpo es de un brillante azul-violáceo y la otra parte es de color amarillo-anaranjado brillante. Muestra dos o tres barras verticales oscuras que dividen las diferentes secciones de color. Las aletas son de color anaranjado con una banda blanca en los filos de las aletas dorsales.

Puede alcanzar hasta 12 cm a lo largo de su vida….

Las hembras mustran una ancha banda longitudinal acompañada de una serie de estrechas líneas que se correspnden con cada fila de escamas, que se oscurecen o clarean de acuerdo con el humor del pez. Las hembras maduras de más edad pueden mostrar una coloración similar a la de los machos subordinados, pero presentan unas aletas más redondeadas y un cuerpo menos alargado.

Estos peces sólo muestran su espléndida coloración cuando están bien aclimatados y alimentados. Requieren un acuario bien plantado, donde sus colores resaltan aún más.

Tamaño:

Hasta 12 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:

Los machos son más coloridos y generalmente presentan un cuerpo más alargado y profundo. Las hembras son ligeramente más pequeñas (unos 2 cm de media en ejemplares maduros de la misma edad). La parte delantera de la aleta dorsal es más alta en el macho, y cuando se pliega sobre el cuerpo solapa la segunda parte.

Temperatura:

23º a 28ºC.

Agua:

Al contrario que la mayoría de las especies de peces arco-iris, casi todas procedentes de Australia, M. bosemani requiere agua de pH bajo (en torno a 6.5) y con una dureza moderada, no superior a 6ºdGH. El agua debe de estar muy oxigenada y se requieren cambios de agua frecuentes.

No obstante, Heiko Bleher tomó muestras de su biotopo al recolectarlos y encontro gran variedad de pH. Aunque el agua era siempre blanda (5ºdGH)y de conductividad reducida (145 µS) el pH podía variar desde 6.4 a nada menos que 9.0, aunque esta última medición tan alta fue tomada en estanques artificiales construidos por los nativos para depositar los peces. En los lagos tomó mediciones de pH de hasta 8.0. Boeseman tomó mediciones de pH de 6.4-6.5 cuando recolectó los primeros ejemplares.

Acuario:

Acuario espacioso y muy bien plantado, con suficiente espacio para la rápida natación de estos peces, por lo que nunca debería de tener una longitud inferior a un metro ni un volumen menor de 200 litros, preferentemente mayor.

Junto con una gran densidad de plantas, un sustrato oscuro resalta aún más sus colores.

Necesitan una filtración potente (lo ideal es un filtro que mueva de 3 a 5 veces el volumen del acuario por hora). Agua bien oxigenada, con ligero movimiento en la superficie.

Acuario espacioso y muy bien plantado, con suficiente espacio para la rápida natación de estos peces, por lo que nunca debería de tener una longitud inferior a un metro ni un volumen menor de 200 litros, preferentemente mayor.

Alimentación:

La alimentación no supone problema alguno, ya que son bastante voraces y cualquier cosa que caiga de la superficie del agua provoca en ellos el acto reflejo de abalanzarse hacia ello. Por esta razón no conviene que compartan tanque con otros peces mucho más tranquilos o lentos comiendo, ya que saldrán perdiendo ante la voracidad de los arco-iris. Aceptarán de buen grado cualquier alimento seco, pero es importante ofrecerles una dieta variada y no monótona, ofreciéndoles varios tipos diferentes de escamas, gránulos, presas vivas y congeladas (artemias, larvas, dafnias, etc.). Se alimentarán en superficie o en la parte superior del acuario, pero habitualmente no comerán nada que llegue al fondo, por lo que hay que tener cuidado en darles un alimento que se hunda lentamente y en cantidades que puedan atrapar dando rienda libre a su instinto de caza antes de que se hunda.

Es conveniente dejarlos en ayunas un día a la semana.

Comportamiento:

Son peces pacíficos que suelen ignorar a los otros inquilinos, aunque su natación rápida y nerviosa puede estresar a peces que necesiten tranquilidad (no será por tanto buen compañero para peces como discos o cíclidos enanos). Los pequeños carácidos y tetras también pueden sentirse intimidados ante la incansable actividad de los arco iris. Ciprínidos como los barbos o cíclidos medianos serían compañeros más apropiados siempre que las características del agua sean compatibles..

No deben de mantenerse juntas más de una especie de melanotaenias, ya que existe el riesgo de hibridación, nunca deseable en acuario.

Reproducción:

Para permitir la reproducción, la dureza del agua no debe de superar los 10ºdGH, ya que una dureza más alta impide el desarrollo de los huevos por razones de tensión osmótica entre el interior del corión y el medio exterior, que hacen que el huevo corra el riesgo de estallar de forma literal. Además, en un agua excesivamente dura, el corión puede calcificarse y, aunque la larva sea viable, le resultará imposible liberarse de la cubierta del huevo, con lo que morirá sin haber podido lograr la eclosión. Respetando esta circunstancia, se trata de una especie ideal para iniciarse en la reproducción de los peces arco-iris. Las puestas son posibles incluso en un acuario comunitario, pero obviamente es poco viable garantizar la supervivencia de los alevines en él.

Para obtener alevines se puede retirar las plantas o la fibra sintética en la que hayan quedado depositados los huevos y trasladarlos a un acuario vacío de eclosión y cría. La otra opción, que comentamos más adelante, es la de trasladar a los progenitores a un acuario destinado para este fin.

Su mejor coloración es cuando están en época de reproducción…

Si se instala a un macho y a una hembra maduros en un recipiente de cría (de al menos 100 litros), deben de disponerse plantas de hoja fina que lleguen a la superficie (tipo ceratopteris, cabombas, myriophyllum, ambulias…) o bien “mopa” sintética que las sustituya. La pareja se introduce por la noche, justo antes de apagar las luces. Si el acuario recibe la luz de sol y la pareja está dispuesta, los escarceos amorosos empezarán con los primeros rayos de sol. El macho persigue a la hembra con insistencia por todo el acuario, mostrando sus mejores y más intensos colores. La pareja se funde en un abrazo, flanco con flanco, junto a las zonas abrigadas de las plantas. El contacto, en el que el macho se arquea sobre la hembra, apenas dura unos segundos, pero durante ese lapso la hembra libera los huevos translúcidos y el macho hace lo propio con su esperma. La freza puede durar varias horas y es similar a la de los killis, es decir, si se deja junta a la pareja puede repetirse en períodos de tres o cuatro días en los que cada vez se depositan unos cuantos huevos.

Si los padres están perfectamente alimentados, no suelen comerse los huevos ni los alevines. No obstante conviene retirarlos una vez hecha la puesta para mantener una mejor calidad del agua.

Los huevos son semi-adhesivos y quedan pegados a las plantas e incluso a los vidrios y el sustrato por medio de unos cortos filamentos. La incubación es bastante larga, pero los huevos son bastante resistentes a hongos y ataques bacterianos si se mantiene una adecuada calidad e higiene del medio acuático.

El número normal de huevos oscila entre 100 y 200. La eclosión se produce entre 6 y 7 días después, con temperaturas entre 24 y 28ºC

Los alevines son muy pequeños al nacer, pero reabsorben enseguida el saco vitelino y son capaces de alimentarse enseguida de infusorios e incluso nauplios de artemia recién eclosionados. Hay que procurar no sobrealimentar y mantener la calidad del agua, con un filtro de esponja bien maduro, ya que son muy sensibles al nitrito, aunque sea en cantidades mínimas. Con un mes de vida pueden medir cerca de un centímetro, y con 4 meses alrededor de 3,5 cm, edad con la que ya pueden ser sexados.

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134 Respuestas a Pez Arcoiris Boeseman ó Melanotaenia

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