Cangrejo Ermitaño de Tierra o Coenobita Clypeatus

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Nombre Cientifico: Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791)
Familia: Coenobitidae.
Biotopo:
Se encuentran tanto en playas como en los bosques de las islas caribeñas en las que se encuentran.
Distribución:
En zonas tropicales y subtropicales a través de todo el Caribe. Podemos encontrar tanto a esta especie como a sus parientes del género Coenobita, en las Bahamas, Venezuela, las Islas de la Virgen y en algunas zonas de Florida.
Forma:
Cangrejo ermitaño estilizado, nada que ver con un cangrejo con la forma corriente como los cangrejos del género Uca. De ojos sobresalientes, posee una visión muy buena. La boca también sobresale del cuerpo, tiene forma de pico. Posee dos pares de antenas, en ellas se encuentran tanto el sentido del tacto, como parte del olfato y el gusto. Las extremidades acaban en una finísima punta que literalmente clavan en el terreno para poder aferrarse y no caerse de grandes alturas. Un pedipalpo (pinza) más grande que otro. Utiliza ambos para comer y combatir contra machos u otro cangrejo que le quiera robar una caracola. Cuando se esconde en el interior de la caracola, solo sobresale una pequeña parte del pedipalpo de mayor tamaño, para poder utilizarlo en caso de peligro. Acaba en un abdomen de forma helicoidal, que enrosca en la caracola; es muy sensible a la humedad además de frágil. Posee una parte en forma de gancho más duro que utiliza para aferrarse bien a la concha del molusco.
Nombre común: Cangrejo ermitaño de tierra.

Unos 24-28, siendo óptimos los 27ºC durante todo el día, bajándolos al anochecer hasta los 24ºC.

Coloración:
Depende de tres factores: la especie, la zona y de si hace tiempo que mudó y su exoesqueleto se encuentra desgastado. Suele ser de color rosado, marrón , blanco y rojo, pero tambien lo son especies parecidas como C. rugosus, C. brevimanus o C. compressus, por lo que la identificación es costosa, aun con una fotografia. Por suerte en Europa lo que más se comercializa es C. clypeatus, y C. rugosus, pero es posible encontrar C. compressus muy de vez en cuando.
Tamaño:
No suele sobrepasar los 6-8 cm.
Diferencias sexuales:
Los machos tienen la pinza grande, ligeramente de mayor tamaño, pero lo que más nos servirá para diferenciarlos es que en las hembras se pueden ver los gonóporos (aberturas genitales de las hembras), donde los machos situan el espermatóforo propio de muchos artrópodos.
Temperatura:
Unos 24-28, siendo óptimos los 27ºC durante todo el día, bajándolos al anochecer hasta los 24ºC.
Agua:
Son animales completamente terrestres, pero necesitan un recipiente con agua salada o dulce. Ya que la encuentran tanto en el bosque,por la lluvia y el rocío como en las playas. El agua debe encontrarse cristalina en todo momento. El recipiente no debe ser más profundo que el propio cangrejo y debe poder salir en caso de que caiga en su interior, ya que puede ahogarse perfectamente. Podemos añadir unos 4-5 g/l de sal al agua, ya que el agua salada será todo ventajas. Cuando se haga una herida, se bañará ya que le ayudará bastante a cicatrizar. Otra ventaja es que le ayuda a que el proceso de muda se realice sin problemas.
Acuario:
Un terrario grandecito con turba negra o con arena mojada es lo más recomendable ya que debemos retener humedad como sea. Podemos añadir unos trozos de fibra de coco, ya que la humedad debe encontrarse al 75-80% e intentar que no baje de este porcentaje, en cuyo caso se debilitan y mueren al poco tiempo. La temperatura puede ofrecerse desde arriba,(siempre mejor que desde abajo) como en su medio natural, que con un cable o manta térmica, pero también sirve. Por cierto, debemos tener precaución en esto, los cangrejos del género Coenobita son terrestres y se mantienen secos todo el tiempo que quieren, pero en el interior de la caracola mantienen una pequeña cantidad de agua para hidratar su abdomen blando y sensible, y para beber en casos de escasez de agua, por lo que si nos pasamos con la fuente de calor… lo más probable es que deshidratemos nuestro pobre Coenobita ssp. y muera. Unos troncos y plantas (de plástico son más recomendables, porque las destrozará intentando subir por ellas..) son necesarios para que se sienta a gusto. Debemos evitar que las heces (en forma de churro o de paréntesis) conjuntamente con los alimentos inciten la aparición de moho, por lo que debemos estar pendientes. La higiene es bastante importante, por la aparición de hongos y la manipulación excesiva o la convivencia con animales mayores y molestos, además de la aparición de ácaros que les produzcen un gran estrés, puede hacer que se les “caigan las patas”!! sisi como lo oís. Incluso los pedipalpos, por lo que aumentan las posibilidades de caer al escalar o de morir por inanición. Aunque esto sólo se da en condiciones extremas.
Alimentación:
Aceptan lo siguiente: mango, papaya, coco (seco o fresco), manzana, plátano, uvas, piña, fresas, melón, zanahoria, espinaca, lechuga (pero la iceberg es mala), brocoli, pasas, algas (en tiendas de alimentacion asiatica), si puedes adquirirlas. Galletas sin sal, carne y pescado, incluso palomitas de maiz,pero sin sal. Los alimentos balanceados, como la comida de peces en escamas,los sticks reptomin y cualquier otro alimento para tortugas son muy recomendables. Para darles aportes de calcio, para el exoesqueleto, se puede añadir jibia de sepia rayada al alimento,añadir como sustrato al terrario, arena coralina o coral machacado, y conchas y cáscaras de huevo triturados. Gente que lleva años con esto recomienda que se de de beber y dar el alimento en las mismas conchas que se encuentran en la playa, porque aunque sea mínimo, existe un aporte de calcio.
Comportamiento:
Son muy curiosos, necesitan explorarlo todo. De costumbres escaladoras, en arena suelen escavar, sobretodo si van a mudar. La muda es difícil y si no les aportamos las condiciones necesarias pueden morir. Si la caracola se les queda pequeña después de la muda, tienen como único objetivo encontrar una concha de su agrado,a ser posible la más bonita, ya que las hembras se fijan en esto después de las posibles peleas entre machos. Por este mismo motivo, en su area de distribución no es raro ver dos machos peleándose a muerte por una simple caracola. Debemos tener el terrario siempre bien vigilado y cerrado ya que tienden a escalar por todo lo que se les ponga por delante. Si se resbalan, cuando caen desde una altura se resguardan en la concha para evitar daños del exoesqueleto.
Reproducción:
No se ha conseguido hasta ahora, ya que los adultos vuelven desde las selvas hasta las playas para desovar en el agua salobre. Los huevos eclosionan y forman parte de zooplancton alimentándose de fitoplancton hasta que completan el ciclo de larva y llegan a las playas en busca de caracolas. Es una tarea dificilísima y probablemente imposible, ya que aunque se lograra, no se podrían sacar adelante los cangrejos ya que no sería factible proporcionar caracolas de su medida a unos 500 cangrejos o más, proporcionándoles de otros tamaños según fueran mudando. Por lo que puedo decir desafortunadamente que todos los ejemplares que se comercializan son capturados.

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