Pleco Comun

pleco

Nombre Cientifico: Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus,1758)

Nombre común:
“Pleco” (El Verdadero), “Hypo”, “Pez de boca suctora”, “Chupa-algas”.

Clasificación:
• Orden: Siluriformes.
• Familia: Loricariidae. (Loricáridos).
• Subfamilia: Hypostominae.
• Tribu: Hypostomini.

Biotopo:
Zonas arenosas, rocosas hasta pantanosas.

Distribución:
Ampliamente distribuido por toda la Cuenca Amazónica, principalmente en el Orinoco.

Forma:
Cuerpo aplanado ventralmente, boca en disposición ínfera, con unos caracteristicos labios suctores con un par de pequeños barbillones. Presenta unas placas óseas recubriendo todo su cuerpo excepto en algunas zonas de las aleta caudal y dorsal principalmente.

MODO DE IDENTIFICAR TAXONOMICAMENTE FRENTE A OTROS LORICARIDOS DE SIMILAR ASPECTO:
El género Hypostomus se puede distinguir de sus primos muy cercanos del género Pterygoplichthys (antes Glyptoperichthys) de la siguiente manera:

• Hypostomus: 7 radios en la aleta dorsal, sin contar el primer radio duro de su aleta dorsal; por tanto 1 radio duro + 7 radios blandos un total de 8 radios si se contase con todo y el primer radio osificado.

Coloración:
Muy variable; va desde motas negras con fondo marrón rojizo a marrón claro presentandose algunas veces hasta negro lo que crea en alguna ocasiones mucha confusión al acuariofilio con su género muy cercano Pterygoplichthys sp.

Tamaño:
50 cm.

Diferencias sexuales:
Solo en ejemplares adultos y es muy poco aparente; se describe al macho con un crecimiento odontal (de no muy gran escala) en la base y radio de las aletas pectorales; la hembra carece de ello.

Temperatura:
20°C a 28°C.

Agua:
pH:6.0 a 8.0 GH: entre 4°d a 15°d. Blanda a semi-dura Nunca agregar sal.

Acuario:
Mínimo 600 litros. Una buena filtración mecánica.

Alimentación:
Omnívoro, pero con una tendencia vegetariana en mayor parte de su vida; por tanto el incluir vegetales (calabacín, pepino, guisantes, etc.) será primordial. Por su lado proteico todo ofrecimiento será bien aceptado exceptuando carnes con grasas saturadas (cerdo, vaca, pavo, etc). Un tronco será básico.

Comportamiento:
Se trata de un ejemplar muy variable a su etología en el tanque, es territorial con su misma (intraespecífico), debiendo contar con grandes escondrijos para él y sus posibles acompañantes. Es una especie recomendada sólo para acuarios públicos o con una capacidad de 600-1.000 litros mínimo.

Reproducción:
En cautiverio existen pocos datos fiables al respecto, por lo que supone un reto para aquellos acuariofilios que posean tanques de más de 2.000 litros. De hecho por su forma de reproducción se considera que no puede ser reproducido en acuario: los peces desovan cuando tienen ya un tamaño considerable (hembras por encima de 30-40 cm) y para depositar los huevos excavan una galería horizontal en las paredes del río, en zonas de tierra arcillosa, donde el macho cuida de los huevos. Como es imposible para un acuario normal, e incluso de gran volumen contar con paredes de tierra de tal espesor, su reproducción en acuario se considera imposible, aunque puede intentarse (sin que haya noticias de se haya obtenido nunca), con tuberías de gran tamaño u otros recipientes del tamaño apropiado que sirvan de escondrijo, en acuarios de gran volumen.

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