Cabomba

cabomba

Nombre común: Cabomba. Cabomba verde.

Familia: Cabombaceae.

Distribución: Se extiende desde Sudamérica septentrional hasta Norteamérica meridional. No obstante C. caroliniana es considerada una planta invasora no nativa en el Noreste de Estados Unidos y en la zona Noroeste del Pacífico, y no debe de liberarse en el medio acuático por motivos ecológicos.

Forma: Llaman la atención sus finas hojas en forma de abanico, que le dan un aspecto muy delicado. Color verde intenso, muy brillante. Se puede confundir (y mucha gente lo hace) con la “ambulia” (Limnophila sessiliflora), que es mucho más sencilla de mantener y el aspecto de cuyas hojas es ligeramente diferente. La Cabomba tiene una par de hojas en cada nudo, mientras que la ambulia desarrolla hojas agrupadas alrededor del tallo en cada nudo. Sus hojas están dispuestas en nudos de forma alternada, y crecen más juntas cuanto mayor es la iluminación. Con una correcta iluminación la distancia internodal es corta y da mejor aspecto a la planta. También se puede confundir con plantas del mismo género, de las que a veces es muy complicada de distinguir, como de C. acuática, de aspecto algo más plumoso.

A veces se encuentra en los comercios florecida, con una flor blanca que llama mucho la atención de los aficionados y la compran en ese momento. En realidad es el peor momento para comprarla, puesto que la planta no florece sumergida y la flor no durará más que un par de días al meterla en el agua y, como contrapartida, la Cabomba estará debilitada por la carga que supone el dar lugar a la(s) flor(es) y se adaptará peor –o no se adaptará en absoluto– a las condiciones del acuario.

Como curiosidad: es comestible como vegetal y en algunas zonas se usa en ensalada o como aderezo.

Tamaño: 30-80 cm de altura. Ancho de cada tallo: 5-8 cm de diámetro.

Forma de propagación: Se propaga por medio de esquejes, brotes laterales tras el corte.

Temperatura: 18° a 26°C.

Agua: pH: 6 – 7. Agua blanda y ácida.

Iluminación: Alta a muy alta. Es una planta muy exigente en este apartado y con baja iluminación tiende a volverse quebradiza y a morir en poco tiempo. También necesita CO2.

Tipo de sustrato: El sustrato habrá de ser arcilloso y rico en nutrientes y requiere de abonado periódico, preferentemente con pastillas cerca de las raíces. Conviene plantar los tallos en grupos, pero hay que dejar un espacio de al menos un centímetro entre tallo y tallo para evitar que se solapen y se roben la luz unos a otros.

Es una planta de crecimiento rápido, adecuada para eliminar compuestos nitrogenados nocivos y para oxigenar el agua.

Dificultad: Difícil. Pese a que sea una planta muy frecuente en el comercio, es una especie muy exigente, tanto en la necesidad de agua ácida y blanda como en la necesidad de iluminación y a la obligatoriedad de aportar CO2, ya que tampoco prospera bien con concentraciones bajas de este nutriente. El nivel de CO2 en el acuario debería estar en, como mínimo, 15 mg/l. Además algunos peces tienden a mordisquearla. Por esta dificultad, normalmente se elige la Ambulia (Limnophila sessiliflora) como sustitutiva, ya que tiene un aspecto muy similar y es mucho menos exigente. Sin embargo, cuando se dan las condiciones apropiadas, Cabomba caroliniana crece de manera muy rápida formando matas espesas de excelente aspecto.

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Comentarios

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