Abramites Rayado o Abramites hypselonotus

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Nombre común: Abramites rayado. Cabeza gacha rayado. Cabeza abajo marmolado. Nombres locales: San Pedrito (Perú). Piau-tambaqui y Piau-pedra (Brasil), Picúo (Venezuela), Jikiii (Argentina).

Clasificación: • Orden: Caraciformes.

• Familia: Anostomidae. (Anostómidos).

• Subfamilia: Anostominae.

Biotopo: Arroyos y ríos en zonas tropicales (Amazonas) y subtropicales.

Distribución: Sudamérica. Río Orinoco, río Amazonas, río Paraguay y diversos ríos en la cuenca del bajo Paraná. Bolivia (ríos Guaporé, Mamoré, Curiraba, arroyo Mercedes), Brasil (Amazonas, Tocantinis…), Colombia (ríos Vaupes, Bobonaza, Leticia…); Ecuador (ríos Napo, Villano, Curaray…); Paraguay (río Paraguay y su sistema); Perú (ríos Amazonas, Ucayali, Pichis, Tamshiyacu…); Venezuela (Orinoco).

Forma: Ahusada e hidrodinamica, lateralmente comprimida. Aleta caudal dividida, posee aleta adiposa. La cabeza se estrecha bastante en relación con el cuerpo. Boca en posición adelantada.

Coloración: Cuerpo de color base beige claro, surcado por varias rayas verticales de color marrón oscuro y grosor medio. Las rayas presentan ondulaciones y se extienden a las aletas dorsal y anal, mientras que la caudal es transparente. La raya que cruza a la altura de las aletas dorsal y anal, pisando sobre ellas, y el extremo del pedúculo caudal suelen ser de un color más intenso y oscuro, al igual que el extremo de la aleta adiposa.

Tamaño: Hasta 13 cm.

Diferencias sexuales: La hembra presenta un cuerpo más alto. Los machos presentan un colorido más intenso.

Temperatura: Entre 23 y 27ºC. Clima subtropical.

Agua: Acida y blanda hasta medianamente dura, pH: 6.0 – 7.5 GH: 3ºd a 15ºd.

Acuario: Acuario espacioso, no muy poblado, con abundante espacio para nadar. Luce mucho más si el fondo elegido como sustrato es de color oscuro (como es su biotopo). Pueden alojarse en acuarios plantados a juveniles, los adultos mejor en acuarios sin plantas pues las incluirán en su dieta, aunque puede intentarse compatibilizar ambos dándoles suficiente aporte vegetal en forma de hojas de lechuga y usando plantas duras y de mal sabor (microsorum, anubias, etc.). Aparte de los brotes jóvenes de todas las plantas, es especialista en devorar los ápices de las echinodorus, por lo que no será raro ver las hojas de estas plantas flotando si se mantienen en un tanque con Abramites rayados adultos.

Alimentación: Dieta esencialmente vegetariana, que incluye algas y las propias plantas e incluso lechuga y otros vegetales. También aceptará gusanos, pequeños crustáceos, insectos y comida desecada (escamas, hojuelas, liofilizado, etc.). Agradecerá especialmente –y con ello quizá respete más las plantas– la adición de pastillas y escamas con alto contenido en espirulina.

Comportamiento: Debe sus nombres comunes a que nada con la cabeza mirando hacia el suelo, formando un ángulo de 45º con el plano horizontal.

Los juveniles (hasta los 8-10 cm.) son pacíficos, pero los peces de más edad son bastante agresivos, incluso entre congéneres. También son agresivos con la vegetación cuando son adultos, y sólo los ejemplares jóvenes son compatibles con acuarios plantados. Los ejemplares adultos deben ser mantenidos en solitario y con otras especies robustas y de comportamiento similar como compañeros.

Es un buen saltador, por lo que los acuarios que lo alojen deben de contar con una buena tapa.

Reproducción: No existen informes fiables de su reproducción en cautividad que jamás ha sido obtenida por aficionados. El libro de Riehl y Baensch (Atlas Mergus Vol. 1) es la única fuente en la que se habla de la remota posibilidad de su cría en cautividad, y cita textualmente: “No ha sido posible en acuario todavía. Sin embargo en ocasiones hay numerosas crías ofertadas desde el sudeste de Asia. por ello la reproducción en cautiverio parece ser posible”.

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