Osmoregulacion en los peces

OSMORREGULACION EN PECES DE DULCE AGUA

 

Osmosis:  Es la difusión que tiene lugar entre dos líquidos o gases capaces de mezclarse a través de un tabique o membrana semipermeable.

 

 

Los PECES que viven en agua dulce, ésta es muy diluida y tiene una concentración de sal muy inferior. De esta manera el H2O entra por ÓSMOSIS y las sales se pierden por DIFUSIÓN al exterior a través de las Branquias. La excreción de heces se realiza por medio de la papila anal. Los desechos metabólicos nitrogenados que forman la orina la excretan por medio de la papila Urogenital al medio exterior.

 

Sus mecanismos de regulación son:

 

– El exceso de agua es bombeado al exterior por los Riñones que tienen muchos glomérulos, formando una abundante orina diluida.

– Las células absorbentes de sales localizadas en las branquias transportan activamente iones desde el

 H2O a la sangre. También recuperan sales de los alimento  

 

Características.

Uno de los procesos biológicos fundamentales en los seres vivos y, sobre todo, para aquellos que habitan en ecosistemas acuáticos es la osmorregulación, también conocida como equilibrio osmótico.

Todas las reacciones metabólicas necesarias para la vida tienen lugar en un medio acuoso o líquido. Para el correcto funcionamiento de dichas reacciones, es necesario que las concentraciones de agua y de solutos (todos aquellos compuestos orgánicos de bajo peso molecular que ayudan a mantener el equilibrio osmótico) oscilen dentro de unos márgenes relativamente estrechos, en un proceso llamado osmorregulación.

 

Podemos definir a la osmorregulación como el método que mantiene la homeostasis del cuerpo, que no es otra cosa que la capacidad que tienen los organismos vivos para mantener estable su condición interna en función de los cambios que puedan producirse en el exterior a través del intercambio de materia y energía con el mismo.

 

Todo esto depende de una forma crucial del desplazamiento controlado de los solutos existentes en los líquidos internos y aquellos que se encuentran en el entorno. Esto nos conduce a que la regulación en el movimiento del agua juegue un papel fundamental.

 

Dicha regulación del movimiento del agua se lleva a cabo por ósmosis, que es un fenómeno físico basado en el movimiento de un líquido solvente el cual atraviesa una membrana semipermeable. Este fenómeno surge gracias a una difusión simple que no requiere gasto de energía y que se vuelve crucial para el correcto metabolismo celular de los seres vivos.

 

En definitiva, y a modo de resumen general, la osmorregulación nos ayuda a hacer que las

concentraciones de solutos existentes en el interior de los organismos (ejemplo: células) y el ambiente que los rodea, tienda a equilibrarse mediante el movimiento y el flujo que atraviesa una membrana semipermeable. Tal circunstancia nos permite regular la presión osmótica (presión que se ejerce sobre con el fin de detener un determinado flujo de disolvente que penetra una membrana).

En los peces de agua dulce, la concentración de iones que alberga su cuerpo es ciertamente mayor que la presente en el agua. Esto provoca una constante difusión de agua que penetra a través del epitelio de las branquias y del resto de su cuerpo al interior.

 

Esto es regulable gracias a que el riñón de este conjunto de peces genera grandes cantidades de orina. A esto hay que sumarle que al tener una concentración de sales que la propia agua en la que viven pierde electrolitos, que deben compensar absorbiendo sales por medio de sus branquias.

 

Los peces de agua dulce non beben mucha agua, la absorben mediante las banqueas los peces de agua dulce en su excreción eliminan gran cantidad de orina. su excreción de heces se realiza por medio de la apila anal

 

En los peces de agua dulce excretan mayor cantidad de orina esto es parte de su excreción el resto se elimina por los riñones. El exceso de agua es bombeado al exterior por los riñones que tienen muchos glomérulos, formando una abundante orina diluida.

Las células absorbentes de sales localizadas en las branquias transportan activamente iones desde el agua a la sangre. También recuperan las sales de los alimentos.

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