Características de los Peces

Todo lo que tienes que saber de los peces.

Nuestro interés en este post es que puedas conocer todas las características de los peces que posees, y así tener una idea de cómo darles un mejor cuido; Los peces son vertebrados acuáticos que respiran a través de branquias; viven tanto en agua dulce como en agua salada.

Los peces siempre han representado un papel importante, tanto en la naturaleza como en relación con el hombre, ya que son una fuente muy importante para hobbistas y también muy importante para la alimentación, en el área de pesca que también es un deporte para muchos.

Cada día el número de personas que quieren tener una mascota acuática va en aumento día con día, y es muy entendible ya que los peces con sus peceras o estanques han sido el símbolo perfecto de relajación para muchas personas.

 

Clasificación de peces de agua dulce.

 

Peces de agua dulce(Tropicales): Los Mollys, platys, guppys, espadas, peces gatos, tetras, plecos, betta, barbos, disco, etc. http://paradisetropicalfish.com.sv/category/tropicales-americanos/

Peces de agua dulce (Agua fría): Ojos de burbuja, telescópicos, oranda, ojos celestiales, escama perla, ryukin, cabeza de león o rancho, cometas, moros, shubunkys, goldfish Fantail etc. http://paradisetropicalfish.com.sv/category/agua-fria/

Peces de agua dulce (Ciclidos americanos): Oscar, flower, rey midas, convictos, pericos, Golden severum, terror verde, etc.  http://paradisetropicalfish.com.sv/category/ciclidos-americanos/

Peces de agua dulce (Ciclidos africanos): Pavo real, auratus, Ciclido limón, amarillo eléctrico, azul eléctrico cebra roja, etc.  http://paradisetropicalfish.com.sv/category/ciclidos-africanos/

Denominación por Grupos.

  • Angnatha o Agnados: caracterizados principalmente en que no poseen mandíbulas ni escamas, por ejemplo, lampreas.
  • Ganathostomata o gnatótonos: es una superclase que agrupa los animales con mandíbulas, en ella se incluye a los peces mandibulados, concretamente en dos grupos o clases.
  • Cartilaginosos: Chondrichthyes (condríctios), es decir, aquellos con esqueleto cartilaginoso.
  • Peces óseos: Osteichthyes (osteíctios), en los que su cuerpo está dotado de esqueleto óseo.

 

Alimentacion según grupos.

 

Carnívoros: Se alimentan de otros peces, estos vertebrados acuáticos disponen de un aparato digestivo corto y un estómago bastante grande que le ayuda a la digestión rápida.

Herbívoros: Se alimentan de plantas o vegetación acuática, por ejemplo, las algas, a diferencia de los carnívoros, disponen de un largo intestino y su estómago es menos voluminoso.

Limnívoros: Se alimentan de algas y vegetación acuática, aunque también consumen desechos y organismos vivos, por esa razón tienen habilidades para escarbar en el fondo en busca de alimentos.

Omnívoros: prácticamente consumen todo lo que pueden capturar, tanto alimentos vivos, como vegetación acuática.

 

Reproducción de los peces según su género.

La reproducción es variable en función del tipo de pez, existen tres clases: vivíparos, ovíparos y ovovivíparos.

  • Los ovovivíparos retienen los huevos en el interior de la madre y son expulsados en el momento de la eclosión, es una forma de proteger a sus crías frente a depredadores, el embrión se alimenta del vitelo existente en el huevo.
  • Los vivíparos tienen una forma muy especial de alimentar al embrión, bien por secreciones ováricas o por placentación.
  • Las especies ovíparas, expulsan los huevos al medio natural y su fecundación es externa a diferencia de los anteriores.

 

Caracterización de los peces.

  • Respiración a través de branquias, un grupo muy reducido cuenta con respiración pulmonar.
  • Sus ojos carecen de párpados.
  • Inexistencia de órganos sexuales externos, generalmente los órganos sexuales se encuentran en el interior de su cuerpo a excepción de algunas especies.
  • La mayoría de ejemplares poseen una excelente capacidad visual, su olfato, en cambio, está menos desarrollado, aunque cuentan con órganos sensoriales muy desarrollados para detectar vibraciones, presencia de enemigos…
  • Son heterotermos (sangre fría), es decir, no pueden regular su temperatura corporal sin la ayuda de un medio externo.
  • Carecen de miembros para la locomoción (extremidades para moverse de un lugar a otro), éstos son sustituidos por aletas con diversidad de funciones.
  • En la mayoría de los casos su cerebro es pequeño en comparación con el cuerpo.
  • Su piel está revestida de escamas, aunque existen excepciones.
  • El cuerpo es fusiforme (es decir en forma abultada o forma de huso) en la mayoría de especies.
  • Cuentan con esqueleto interno.

 

 

 

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